**Role of statistics in geography**

Statistical techniques and procedures are applied in all fi elds of academic research; wherever data are collected and summarized or wherever any numerical information is analyzed or research is conducted, statistics are needed for sound analysis and interpretation of results.

Geographers use statistics in numerous ways

• To describe and summarize spatial data.

• To make generalizations concerning complex spatial patterns.

• To estimate the probability of outcomes for an event at a given location.

• To use samples of geographic data to infer characteristics for a larger set of geographic data (population).

• To determine if the magnitude or frequency of some phenomenon diff ers from one location to another.

• To learn whether an actual spatial pattern matches some expected pattern.

For example, a student studying the annual rainfall in a particular region will fi rst of all collect the data regarding rainfall of the region. T hen he will summarize the collected data in some table or diagram to show the desired results.

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